Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, and widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated—or regressed—for well over 1,000 years. Improvement was very slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.
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But generally speaking it's easy to repair. Now for the purpose of this video I'm going to show you how to solder a 90, okay, also known as an L, which is a very small fitting. This would be, for example, let's say we installed a new vanity or a kitchen cabinet. You'd have a raw copper pipe coming out like so. All right. And then you'd need to put a joint in there of some sort. It might be an L going up like so and then a valve that would shut off the supply to your sink. Okay. So for this purpose I'm just going to solder this 90. I'm going to show you how to properly do it. Ask any plumber how to solder, and you'll get any number of different stories on how to do so. This is is how I solder, not necessarily saying it's the Bible way to solder, but this is how I do it, and it's worked for me for 20 years as a Master Plumber. You need a few things. An emery cloth, this is basically sandpaper, but it's a strip. You need a fitting brush. This is a half-inch fitting brush. You need silver solder. Be careful not to get lead. It says very clearly 95 percent/5 percent. And your trusty torch.
Jump up ^ "II. The Plumbers". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 September 2013. In the early evening of June 17, 1971, Henry Kissinger held forth in the Oval Office, telling his President, and John Ehrlichman and Bob Haldeman, all about Daniel Ellsberg. Kissinger's comments were recorded, of course, on the hidden White House taping system, and four years later, a portion of that tape was listened to by the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, which was then investigating the internal White House police unit known as the Plumbers.
Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 BC. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft. The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. The Latin for lead is plumbum. Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were also covered with lead. Lead was also used for piping and for making baths.