The R Programming Language (R Core Team 2013) has become one of the most dominant programming languages for data analysis and visualization in recent years. At the same time, web services have become a common language for allowing various systems to interact with one another. The plumber R package (Trestle Technology, LLC 2017) allows users to expose existing R code as a service available to others on the Web. Plumber is best illustrated with an example:
Do you have a smelly garbage disposer? Cleaning the disposal is simple! Run cold water, turn on the disposal, and feed two trays of ice cubes into the disposal quickly. Wait until all ice is completely degraded before turning off the disposer and cold water. If the disposer still smells bad, chop up a lemon into small chunks and feed it down the drain.
“Don’t assume that every Mr. Fix-it advertising his services in the local Pennysaver or on Craigslist is a licensed plumber,” says one New York plumber. There is no national standard for issuing licenses. Some plumbers are licensed by the state, others by the counties they work in. Check with your local city hall or chamber of commerce. They should be able to direct you to the appropriate source for a list of licensed plumbers in your area.
Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and partially purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings.